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Graphite Oxide Coated Sand Composites for Efficient Removal of Calcium Ions from Hard Water: Isotherm, Kinetics, and Adsorption Mechanism

W.P.R.T. Perera, Niroshan Premasinghe, W.S.K Fernando, P.L.R.A Perera, Chanaka Sandaruwan, A.R. Kumarasinghe, Janitha A. Liyanage

Quarterly No. 4, 2023 pages 209-219

DOI: https://doi.org/10.62753/ctp.2023.05.4.4

keywords: graphite oxide, sand, water hardness, adsorption

article version pdf (2.49MB)

abstract Even if granular media filtration effectively reduces the turbidity of water, its limited surface functionalities and physical properties may constrain its ability to effectively remove critical contaminants from water. In our research, we successfully synthesized a new type of porous material - multiple coated GO/sand (M-GO/S) by integrating ordinary river sand with graphite oxide (GO) for the adsorptive removal of calcium ions in terms of water softening. Prior investigations confirmed it could remove water turbidity and fluoride simultaneously. M-GO/S was characterized using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The results indicate the presence of an uneven coating of graphite oxide, and the nanocomposite contains oxygen-containing functional groups. Under given conditions, the M-GO/S nanocomposite demonstrated remarkable efficacy in removing 75% of calcium ions (a higher removal percentage than commercial coal powdered activated carbon) from simulated hard water: pH 8, 5.0 g dosage, 50 mg/L calcium ions, and 20 min contact time. The isotherm and kinetic data revealed that the adsorption mechanism primarily comprises multilayer adsorption by means of a chemical sorption process. The mechanism of the proposed M-GO/S nanocomposite for removing calcium ions from hard water is elucidated using (XPS) analysis. The presence of (-O-Ca-O-) chemical bonds on the surface of the nanocomposite after equilibration with calcium ions suggests the occurrence of chemical interactions between the calcium ions and oxygen-containing functional groups of the M-GO/S. Consequently, the synthesized M-GO/S nanocomposite can be identified as a promising candidate for hard water treatment.

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